The Evolution of Counterterrorism in Northern Ireland

In the summer of 1969, long-standing tensions between Catholic republicans and Protestant loyalists broke out into open violence in Northern Ireland. Civil protests and heated dialogue turned to vandalism, riots and shootings. Out of this chaos emerged several militant groups, such as the loyalist Ulster Defence Force (UDF) and the anti-British Provisional Irish Republican Army…

Indonesia – From Colonization to Independence

Pinkerton's incredibly detailed 1818 map of the East Indies. (Wikimedia Commons) The end of the 19th century was a tumultuous time in Southeast Asian history. Many colonial nations developed strong nationalist movements and, eventually, overthrew their colonial masters. Unlike Africa - recently colonized during the "Scramble for Africa" in the 1880s and 1890s - much…

European Urban Centres from West to East, 1940-44

This article is a revised version of an essay submitted for academic credit at the University of Toronto. Belgian displaced-persons (or "DPs") after their escape from urban combat in 1945. (Time) Throughout history, military forces have usually avoided fighting in built-up areas for a variety of reasons. Street battles are difficult to control, harder to…

The Battle of Hattin

"Saladin à Jérusalem", by Alexandre-Évarist Fragonard, 1830-50. (Wikimedia Commons) Towards the middle of the 12th century, much of the Holy Land was in the hands of European Christians. Beginning in 1095, the Catholic Church had sanctioned a number of religious expeditions known as the Crusades, efforts at capturing the Holy Lands and Christendom's most sacred…